Physical Chemistry: The study of macroscopic and microscopic events in chemical systems as they relate to the laws, procedures, and concepts of physics, including motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics, and chemical equilibria, is known as physical chemistry.
Inorganic Chemistry: The study of how compounds behave and their qualities, physical makeup, and chemical makeup is known as inorganic chemistry. The lists of inorganic compounds contain all of the elements in the periodic table, excluding carbon and hydrogen. Numerous essential features include copper, nickel, iron, titanium, and iron. Inorganic chemistry focuses on the characteristics and behavior of inorganic compounds, which include metals, minerals, and organometallic compounds.
Organic Chemistry: Organic chemistry studies the structures, properties, and interactions of organic compounds, which have covalent bonds between carbon atoms. Structure analysis is used to identify their structural formula. In addition, organic chemistry studies the composition, production, reactions, and properties of molecules containing carbon. Though they can include several other elements, most organic compounds are made of carbon and hydrogen (e.g., nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur).
Environmental Chemistry: The scientific study of chemical and biological phenomena in the environment is known as ecological chemistry. It shouldn’t be mixed up with green chemistry, which aims to stop pollution before it starts. Understanding, observing, safeguarding, and improving our environment may all be done with the aid of chemistry. Chemists are creating tools and methodologies to ensure that we can detect and measure air and water pollution. They have contributed to the accumulation of data demonstrating how our climate has altered over time.
Medicinal Chemistry: Pharmaceutical agents, or bioactive compounds, are designed, chemically synthesized, and developed for the market in medicinal chemistry, which combines chemistry, particularly synthetic organic chemistry, with pharmacology and several other biological specialties drugs. Aspects of medicinal chemistry include the identification and validation of therapeutic targets, rational (target-based) drug design, structural biology, computational drug design, technique development (chemical, biological, and computational), and “Hit-to-lead” development.
Agricultural Chemistry: Agricultural chemistry is a field of study that examines methods for influencing the biochemical and chemical processes in soil and plants, plant nutrition, and using fertilizers and other chemicals to boost fertility and yield. It provides the scientific justification for introducing chemical processes into agriculture and tackles several methods of increasing production, including herbicides and growth stimulants. Agricultural chemistry shares goals, procedures, and study areas with both chemical and biological sciences. The fields of soil science, forestry, meteorology, plant and biochemistry, agricultural microbiology, physics, and chemistry are also strongly related.
Analytical Chemistry: The area of chemistry known as analytical chemistry is concerned with the analysis of various compounds. It is the science of gathering, analyzing, and disseminating knowledge on the makeup and structure of matter. To put it another way, it is the science and art of figuring out what value is and how much of it there is. Analytical chemistry investigates and employs tools and procedures to separate, distinguish, and quantify materials. The analysis may consist entirely of separation, identification, or quantification or it may be supplemented with another technique. For example, analytes are isolated by separation.
Biochemistry: The study of chemical processes that occur within and relate to living beings is known as biochemistry or biological chemistry. The sciences of structural biology, enzymology, and metabolism might be considered subfields of biochemistry, a branch of both chemistry and biology. Biochemistry is the study of biological processes at the cellular and molecular levels. The field of study known as biochemistry studies the chemical reactions that take place inside and around living things.
Enzymes and Reagents in Chemistry: Enzymes are used in analytical methods based on various presentations. Enzymes can therefore be used in a medium of the solution, immobilized on the surface of the reaction vessel, or a reagent strip. Reagents are substances or compounds that are added to a system to initiate a chemical reaction or determine whether one has already occurred. Reactant refers to a substance that is consumed during a chemical reaction. However, the phrases reactant and reagent are not frequently used interchangeably.
Petroleum Chemistry: Petroleum, usually referred to as crude oil or simply oil, is a naturally occurring liquid mixture made primarily of hydrocarbons that is yellowish-black in color and is found in geological formations. Naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum-based products made of refined crude oil are referred to as petroleum. Chemically, petroleum is mainly composed of hydrogen and carbon, but it also contains tiny amounts of metals, including vanadium, cobalt, and nickel, as well as small amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Alkanes (paraffins), naphthenes, aromatics, and heterocompounds are typically organic compounds.