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Physical environment: The abiotic elements that surround us are referred to as the physical environment. This encompasses the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and physical geological aspects of the planet. Because it sustains all other forms of life as well as human life, the physical environment is significant. It provides the materials necessary for human survival, such as food, drink, shelter, and air. Additionally, it controls natural cycles and the world’s climate. The carbon cycle and the water cycle are two examples of this.

Environmental health: The area of public health known as “environmental health” is concerned with how people and their environment interact, as well as how to encourage safe and healthy communities. Any complete public health system must include environmental health as a crucial component. In order to protect people and create healthy communities, the field strives to improve policies and programmes that limit chemical and other environmental exposures in air, water, soil, and food.

Environmental sustainability: Environmental sustainability attempts to enhance human well-being without unduly taxing the planet’s life-sustaining ecosystems. It involves achieving balance between consumerist human society and the natural world. We could accomplish this by living in a way that doesn’t waste or unnecessarily deplete natural resources.

Ecology: Ecology is a discipline of science that studies the population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere as well as human science. Ecology is the study of living things, their environments, and how those living things interact with one another. Numerous levels, including organism, population, community, biosphere, and ecosystem are researched.

Hydrology: Hydrology is the study of how water is distributed and moves above and below the surface of the Earth, as well as how human activity affects water availability and conditions.

Atmospheric science: The study of the atmosphere, its processes, the influences other systems have on the atmosphere, as well as the effects the atmosphere has on these other systems, falls under the broad category of atmospheric science. The three traditional topical divisions of the atmospheric sciences are meteorology (the study and forecasting of weather), climatology (the study of long-term atmospheric patterns and their influences), and agronomy (the study of the physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere).

Climate science: The study of generally long-term weather patterns, typically spanning decades to centuries but also extending to geological timeframes, is known as climate science. The focus of the field is on atmospheric characteristics, such as temperature and humidity, circulation patterns, and interactions with the ocean, the biosphere, and, over longer time scales, the geosphere.

Emissions: Human-caused emissions increase the greenhouse effect, causing climate change. The majority is produced when fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas are burned. Global climate change is mostly caused by carbon dioxide emissions.

Geoscience: The study of Earth is known as geoscience (sometimes known as Earth science). Geoscience investigates the processes that shape the Earth’s surface, the resources humans utilise, and how water and ecosystems are related. It covers much more than just rocks and volcanoes. Other scientific disciplines, like as chemistry, physics, biology, and arithmetic, are also used in geoscience.

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