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Pharmaceutical technology: Application of scientific knowledge or technology to the fields of pharmacy, pharmacology, and the pharmaceutical industry is known as pharmaceutical technology. In the production, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of pharmaceuticals and other preparations used in diagnostic and conclusive procedures as well as in the treatment of patients, methods, techniques, and equipment are included.

Pharmacokinetics: The study of how the body reacts to drugs provided over the course of exposure is known as pharmacokinetics (PK) (medications for the sake of this article). This is closely related to pharmacodynamics, which closely investigates the drug’s impact on the body, but it differs from it in important ways.

Pharmacovigilance: The prevention and treatment of diseases have been revolutionized by medications and vaccines. Medicinal medicines may have side effects in addition to their advantages, some of which may be unwelcome and/or unexpected. Pharmacovigilance is the study and practice concerned with the identification, evaluation, comprehension, and avoidance of side effects or any other issue with drugs or vaccines. Before being approved for use, all medications and vaccines go through extensive clinical trials to test their safety and efficacy.

Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of drugs and the proper dosage in relation to the start, duration, and intensity of drug activity is known as bio pharmaceutics. It can also be defined as the study of the effects of physicochemical characteristics of the medication and the medication product, in vitro, on the bioavailability of the medication, in vivo, to produce a desired therapeutic effect.

Adverse drug reactions: ADRs are described as “an appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product; adverse effects usually predict hazard from future administration and warrant prevention, or specific treatment, or alteration of the dosage regimen, or withdrawal of the product.”

Targeted drug delivery: Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering the drug moiety specifically to the organ, cellular, and subcellular level of the targeted body location (specific tissue) in order to avoid the unintended harmful effects of traditional drug administration and lower the dosage needed for therapeutic efficacy.

Genomics and proteomics: The study of an organism’s entire gene pool or genetic makeup is known as genomics. DNA sequencing, gene mapping, evolution, gene editing, function, and expression are all involved. It considers each gene that is present in an organism, how they interact, and how they function inside that organism. The study of proteins that are produced by active genes is known as proteomics.

Pharmacogenomics: Pharmacogenomics, also known as pharmacogenetics, is the branch of science that looks at how a person’s genes influence how they react to pharmaceuticals. Its long-term objective is to assist physicians in choosing the medications and dosages that are ideal for every patient. It falls under the category of precision medicine, which tries to treat every patient uniquely. Pharmacogenomics is the study of how the genome affects how well a medicine works. Pharmacogenomics examines how a person’s genetic make-up affects how they react to medications.

Toxicology: Science’s field of toxicology aids in our understanding of the potentially hazardous consequences that substances, chemicals, or events can have on people, animals, and the environment. Toxicology employs science to make predictions about which substances will be harmful and in what ways, and then it disseminates those findings to safeguard the public’s health. The scientific study of harmful effects caused by chemicals on living things is known as toxicology.

Pharmaceutical biotechnology: Pharmaceutical biotechnology is a relatively new and expanding sector where the biotechnology principles are used to develop pharmaceuticals. Vaccines, nucleic acid products, and antibodies are examples of bioformulations that make up the majority of therapeutic medications on the market today.

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