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Agronomy: The production and use of plants by agriculture for food, energy, fiber, chemicals, recreation, or land preservation is known as agronomy. Research on soil science, meteorology, plant physiology, and the genetics of plants is now included in the field of agronomy. It involves putting a variety of sciences, including biology, chemistry, economics, ecology, earth science, and genetics, into practice.

Agricultural Botany: The scientific study of plants, including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, categorization, and economic significance, is known as agricultural botany.

Agricultural Biodiversity: Agricultural biodiversity is a broad term that encompasses all biological diversity elements relevant to food and agriculture as well as all biological diversity elements that make up agricultural ecosystems, also known as agro ecosystems: the variety and variability of organisms at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels that are required to support the agro ecosystem’s essential processes, structure, and structure.

Agricultural Ecology: Agricultural ecology is the study of agricultural ecosystems and the parts that make them up as they operate separately and in relation to the landscapes they are a part of. It encompasses all methods that make agricultural practices more considerate of the environment and its ecological peculiarities.

Agro chemistry: Agricultural chemistry is the study of chemistry, especially organic chemistry and biochemistry, in relation to agriculture, such as agricultural production, the transformation of raw materials into foods and beverages, as well as environmental monitoring and cleanup. It provides the scientific justification for introducing chemical processes into agriculture and tackles several other methods of increasing production, including the use of herbicides and growth stimulants.

Tissue Culture Technology: On specifically designed nutritional media, plant cells, tissues, or organs are grown in tissue culture (TC). When conditions are right, one cell can be used to regenerate a whole plant. One cell, a group of cells, an entire organ, or a portion of an organ may make up the cultured tissue. The amount of planting material is increased using micropropagation, a type of tissue culture, to aid in dissemination and large-scale planting.

Plant-Soil Relationships: One of any nation’s most valuable natural resources is its soil. The land generates raw materials for numerous agro-industries, including sugar and starch factories, textile mills, and canning, in addition to growing a range of food and fodder crops for people and animals. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil, which serve as a habitat for plant growth, affect its degree of workability, suitability for particular crop kinds, physical and chemical capacities, and productivity. In addition, the size, proportion, and arrangement of the soil particle’s minerals impact the soil’s physical properties. Because soil serves as a mechanical support system for plants and a natural medium for plant growth, it is essential to study soil’s physical and biological characteristics carefully.

Horticulture: Fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants make up most of the garden crops this branch of plant agriculture produces. Its root words are hortus, which means “garden,” and colere, which means “to cultivate.” All garden management techniques are included under this umbrella word, although everyday usage refers to heavy commercial output. Pomology and olericulture, two types of plant cultivation used in horticulture, are separated from ornamental plant cultivation (floriculture and landscape horticulture).

Plant-Microbe Relationships: Our terrestrial ecology depends on the interactions of plants and microorganisms. Consequently, applications of microbe-plant interactions are widespread. Recent reports on applications in plant growth promotion, biocontrol, the manufacture of bioactive compounds and biomaterials, remediation, and carbon sequestration are presented in this review. Each field’s difficulties, restrictions, and prospects for the future are explored. Plants and microbes can interact in various ways, including competition, commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism.

Phytoremediation: The use of plants to extract and eliminate toxic elements from the environment or to reduce their bioavailability in the soil is known as phytoremediation. Even in low quantities, ionic substances in the soil can be absorbed by plants through their root systems. For example, to absorb heavy metals and control their bioavailability, plants stretch their root systems into the soil matrix and create rhizosphere ecosystems, reclaiming the polluted soil and stabilizing soil fertility.

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