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Life sciences: The life sciences are those branches of science that focus on studying living things, including humans, animals, and plants. While biology continues to be the core of the life sciences, technological developments in molecular biology and biotechnology have given rise to new multidisciplinary fields and the proliferation of specialties.

Biotechnology: In its simplest form, biotechnology can be defined as biology-based technology that employs cellular and biomolecular processes to produce goods and innovations that improve both human health and the health of the planet. Using the biological functions of microbes, humans have made valuable meals like bread, cheese, and preserved dairy products for approximately 6,000 years.

Microbiology: Microbiology is the study of all living creatures that are too small to view with the naked eye. The term “microbes” refers to organisms that include bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, prions, protozoa, and algae. These bacteria are essential for biotechnology, biodegradation/biodeterioration, food spoilage, climate change, disease causation and control, and nutrient cycling.

Zoology: Zoology studies animals and their relationships to their environments, including their structure, embryology, evolution, classification, behaviors, and distribution.

Botany: Botany, a subfield of biology, is the study of plants. It is sometimes known as plant science, plant biology, or phytology. A scientist specializing in this area is a botanist, plant scientist, or phytologist.

Biochemistry: The study of chemical processes that occur within and relate to living beings is known as biochemistry or biological chemistry. It is a science that combines biology and chemistry and is laboratory-based. The sciences of structural biology, enzymology, and metabolism might be considered subfields of biochemistry, a branch of both chemistry and biology.

Bioinformatics: The application of computer and analysis tools to collect and analyze biological data is referred to as bioinformatics. It is an interdisciplinary field with the help of computer science, mathematics, physics, and biology. The handling of data in contemporary biology and medicine depends on bioinformatics.

System Biology: Systems biology studies complex biological systems using computational and mathematical analysis and modeling. It is an interdisciplinary branch of study grounded in biology that emphasizes complex interactions within biological systems and employs a holistic method of biological inquiry (holism as opposed to the more conventional reductionism).

Downstream Processing: A biosynthetic product’s recovery and purification from natural sources like animal tissue, plant tissue, or fermentation broth is referred to as downstream processing. This process also includes the recycling of salvageable parts and the proper handling and disposal of trash.

Ecology: Ecology studies interactions between living things, such as humans, and their natural surroundings. The levels of individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biospheres are all considered in ecology. It involves connections between people from the same demographic and those from various populations.

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